REFERENCES

Below you will find references to a selection of titles divided according to primaries, key secondaries, and other. This list does not pretend to be exhaustive, but should offer at least an entry point into the main debates.

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Primary Sources

For writings by Marx and Engels, the best source is the Marx/Engels Collected Works, available through the Marxists Internet Archive. Note that if you have university access, you can source the MECW as digitized works via Intelex.

Anybody with an interest in Marxist perspective on law should read Marx's 'Letter to his Father' from 1837. This letter was penned during his school years and shows that one of his earliest scholarly interests was the philosophy of law.

Engels, Friedrich. “Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy.”
———. “Socialism: Utopian and Scientific.”
———. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.
———. “Anti-Dühring: Chapter X. Morality and Law. Equality.”
———. “The Decline of Feudalism and the Rise of the Bourgeoisie.”

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich. Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline. Foreign Languages Press,, 1965.
———. Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1972.
———. “The State and Revolution.” In Essential Works of Lenin, edited by Henry M. Christman, 271–364. New York: Dover Publications, 1987.

Lukács, Georg. History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics. Translated by R. Livingstone. London: Merlin Press, 1968.

Luxemburg, Rosa. The Accumulation of Capital. 2nd ed. Routledge, 2003.

Marx, Karl. Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Translated by Ben Fowkes. Vol. 1. New York: Vintage Books, 1977.
———. Capital: A Critique Of Political Economy. Translated by David Fernbach. Vol. 2. Reprint. Penguin Classic, 2006.
———. Capital: A Critique Of Political Economy. Translated by David Fernbach. Vol. 3. 1st ed. Penguin Classic, 2006.
———. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. 5th rev. ed. --. Progress Publishers,, 1977.
———. Grundrisse: Foundations of Critique. Translated by Martin Nicolaus. Reprint. Penguin Classic, 2005.
———. “The Eighteenth Brumaire of Napoleon Bonaparte.”
———. “Theses on Feuerbach.”
———. “Marx on the History of His Opinions (Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy).”
———. “Letter to His Father: On a Turning-Point in Life (1837).

Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. “The Holy Family.”
———. The German Ideology.

Trotsky, Leon. 2008. History of the Russian Revolution. Translated by Max Eastman. Haymarket Books.


Key Secondaries

Banaji, Jairus. 2011. Theory As History: Essays on Modes of Production and Exploitation. First Trade Paper Edition. Haymarket Books.

Beirne, Piers. 1979. "Empiricism and the Critique of Marxism on Law and Crime." Social Problems 26 (4): 373.385.

Beirne, Piers, and Richard Quinny, ed. 1982. “Editors’ Introduction.” In Marxism and Law, 1–22. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cain, Maureen Elizabeth, and Alan Hunt. 1979. Marx and Engels on Law. Academic Press.

Cahan, Jean Axelrad. 1994. “The Concept of Property in Marx’s Theory of History: A Defense of the Autonomy of the Socioeconomic Base.” Science & Society 58 (4) (December): 392–414.

Callinicos, Alex. 2008. “Uneven and Combined Development: The Social-relational Substratum of ‘the International’? An Exchange of Letters.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21 (1) (March): 77–112.

Cohen, Gerald Allan. 1989. “Base and Superstructure: A Reply to Hugh Collins.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 9 (1) (March 20): 95–100.
———. 2000. Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence. Princeton University Press.

Collins, Hugh. 1984. Marxism and Law. Oxford University Press.

Douzinas, Costas. 2000. The End of Human Rights: Critical Legal Thought at the Turn of the Century. Hart Publishing.

Elster, Jon. 1986. “The Theory of Combined and Uneven Development: A Critique.” In Analytical Marxism, 54–77. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gramsci, Antonio. 1972. Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. New York: International Publishers.

Hay, Douglas C. et al. 1975. Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England, edited by Douglas C. Hay, Peter Linebaough, John G. Rule, E.P. Thompson, and Cal Winslow. New York: Pantheon Books.

Heller, Henry. 2011. The Birth of Capitalism: A 21st Century Perspective. Pluto Press.

Hirst, Paul Q. 1972. “Marx and Engels on Law, Crime and Morality.” Economy and Society 1 (1): 28–56.
———. 1979. On Law and Ideology. Macmillan.

Hunt, Alan, ed. 1977. Class and Class Structure. Lawrence & Wishart Ltd.

Hunt, Alan. 1981. “(Review) Pashukanis: Selected Writings on Marxism and Law.” Marxism Today (February): 30–31.
———. 1985. “The Ideology of Law: Advances and Problems in Recent Applications of the Concept of Ideology to the Analysis of Law.” Law & Society Review 19 (1): 11–37.
———. 1986. “The Theory of Critical Legal Studies.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 6 (1) (April): 1–45.
———. 1993. Explorations in Law and Society: Towards a Constitutive Theory of Law. Routledge.

Ireland, Paddy. 2002. “History, Critical Legal Studies and the Mysterious Disappearance of Capitalism.” The Modern Law Review 65 (1) (January): 120–140.

Kennedy, Duncan. 1998. A Critique of Adjudication [fin De Siècle]. Reprint. Harvard University Press.

Van der Linden, Marcel. 2007. “The ‘Law’ of Uneven and Combined Development: Some Underdeveloped Thoughts.” Historical Materialism 15: 145–165.

Lukes, Steven. 1981. "Can a Marxist Believe in Human Rights?" Praxis 1/1981 (4): 334-345.

Mandel, Ernest. 1970. “The Laws of Uneven Development.” New Left Review (I/59): 19–38.

Marks, Susan. 2008. International Law on the Left: Re-examining Marxist Legacies. Cambridge University Press.

Novack, George. 1966. Uneven and Combined Development in History. Third Edition. Merit Publishers.
———. 1976. “The Law of Uneven and Combined Development and Latin America.” Latin American Perspectives 3 (2) (April): 100–106.

Pashukanis, Evgeny Bronislavovich. 2007. General Theory of Law and Marxism. Edited by Chris Arthur. Translated by Barbara Einhorn. 2nd ed. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Poulantzas, Nicos Ar. 2000. State, Power, Socialism. Verso.

Redhead, Steve. 1982. “Marxist Theory, The Rule of Law and Socialism.” In Marxism and Law, edited by Piers Beirne and Richard Quinny, 328–342. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Tigar, Michael. 1973. Law and the Rise of Capitalism. New York & London: Monthly Review Press.

Trubek, David M. 1972a. “Max Weber on Law and the Rise of Capitalism.” Wisconsin Law Review 1972: 720.
———. 1972b. “Toward a Social Theory of Law: An Essay on the Study of Law and Development.” The Yale Law Journal 82 (1) (November): 1.

Tushnet, Mark. 1991. “Critical Legal Studies: A Political History.” The Yale Law Journal 100 (5) (March): 1515.

Vincent, Andrew. 1993. “Marx and Law.” Journal of Law and Society 20 (4): 371.

Weber, Max. 1954. Law in Economy and Society. Harvard University Press.


Other Notable Marxist-Influenced and Critical Approaches to Law

Abel, Richard L. 1990. “Capitalism and the Rule of Law: Precondition or Contradiction?: [Commentary].” Law & Social Inquiry 15 (4) (October): 685–697.

Arthur, C.J. 1977. “Towards a Materialist Theory of Law.” Critique 7 (1): 31–46.

Balbus, Isaac D. 1977. “Commodity Form and Legal Form: An Essay on the ‘Relative Autonomy’ of the Law.” Law & Society Review 11 (3): 571.

Bartholomew, Amy (ed.). 2006. Empire's Law: The American Imperial Project and the 'War to Remake the World'. Pluto Press.

Beirne, Piers. 1975. “Marxism and the Sociology of Law: Theory or Practice?” British Journal of Law and Society 2 (1): 78.

Binns, Peter. 1980. “Law and Marxism.” Capital & Class 4 (1) (January 3): 100–113.

Brown, Stephen. 2003. “The Problem with Marx on Rights.” Journal of Human Rights 2 (4): 517–522.

Buchanan, Allen E. 1982. Marx and Justice: The Radical Critique of Liberalism. Taylor & Francis.

Burawoy, Michael. “Marxism After Communism.” Theory and Society 29 (2): 151–174.

Cain, Maureen. 1974. “The Main Themes of Marx’ and Engels’ Sociology of Law.” British Journal of Law and Society 1 (2): 136..

Chambliss, William. 1975. “Toward a Political Economy of Crime.” Theory and Society 2 (1) (January): 149–170.

Chimni, B. S. 1999. “Marxism and International Law: A Contemporary Analysis.” Economic and Political Weekly 34 (6) (February): 337–349.

Cloke, Ken. 1971. The Economic Basis of Law and State. Radical Education Project.

Cohen, Gerald Allan. 2000. Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence. Princeton University Press.

Comaroff, John. 1990. “Re-Marx on Repression and the Rule of Law: [Commentary].” Law & Social Inquiry 15 (4) (October): 671–678.

Daly, James. 2000. “Marx and Justice.” International Journal of Philosophical Studies 8 (3): 351–370.

Diamond, Stanley. 1971. “The rule of law versus the order of custom.” Social Research 38 (1) (April): 42–72.

Easton, Susan M. 1977. “Facts, Values and Marxism.” Studies in Soviet Thought 17 (2) (August): 117–134.

Edelman, Bernard. 1980. “The Legalisation of the Working Class.” Economy and Society 9 (1): 50–64.

Edelman, Lauren B. “Rivers of Law and Contested Terrain: A Law and Society Approach to Economic Rationality.” Law & Society 38 (2): 181–198.

Fine, Robert. 2002. Democracy and the Rule of Law: Marx’s Critique of the Legal Form. Blackburn Press.
———. 1994. “The Rule of Law and Muggletonian Marxism: The Perplexities of Edward Thompson.” Journal of Law and Society 21 (2) (June): 193–213.

Fryer, Bob. 1981. Law, State and Society. Routledge.

Fuller, Lon L. 1949. “Pashukanis and Vyshinsky: A Study in the Development of Marxian Legal Theory.” Michigan Law Review 47 (8) (June): 1157–1166.

Gramm, Warren S. 1973. “Industrial Capitalism and the Breakdown of the Liberal Rule of Law.” Journal of Economic Issues 7 (4) (December): 577–603.

Harris, Ron. 2000. Industrializing English Law: Entrepreneurship and Business Organization, 1720-1844. Cambridge University Press.

Horwitz, Morton J. 1976. “The Legacy of 1776 in Legal and Economic Thought.” Journal of Law and Economics 19 (3) (October): 621–632.
———. 1979. “Law and Economics: Science or Politics.” Hofstra Law Review 8: 905.

Jaworskyj, Michael. 1967. Soviet Political Thought: An Anthology, Selected. Johns Hopkins Press.

Kamenka, Eugene. 1971. “Beyond the French Revolution: Communist Socialism and the Concept of Law.” The University of Toronto Law Journal 21 (2) (April): 109–140.

Kelley, Donald R. 1978. “The Metaphysics of Law: An Essay on the Very Young Marx.” The American Historical Review 83 (2) (April): 350.

Kelman, Mark. 1978. “Consumption Theory, Production Theory, and Ideology in the Coase Theorem.” Southern California Law Review 52: 669.

Kinsey, Richard. 1978. “Marxism and the Law: Preliminary Analyses.” British Journal of Law and Society 5 (2): 202.

Lefcourt, Robert. 1971. Law Against the People: Essays to Demystify Law, Order, and the Courts. Random House.

Leiter, Brian. 2002. “Marxism and the Continuing Irrelevance of Normative Theory.” Stanford Law Review 54 (5) (May): 1129–1151.

Lipson, Leon. 1990. “Self-Righteousness and the Rulers of Law: [Commentary].” Law & Social Inquiry 15 (4) (October): 665–670.

McBride, William Leon. 1975. “The Concept of Justice in Marx, Engels, and Others.” Ethics 85 (3) (April): 204–218.

Merritt, Adrian. 1980. “The Nature and Function of Law: A Criticism of E.P. Thompson’s ‘Whigs and Hunters’.” British Journal of Law and Society 7 (2): 194.

Mieville, China. 2006. Between Equal Rights: A Marxist Theory of International Law. Haymarket Books.
———. “The Commodity-Form Theory of International Law: An Introduction.” Leiden Journal of International Law 17 (2): 271–302.

Miliband, Ralph. 1969. The State in Capitalist Society. Basic Books.

Murphy, Jeffrie G. 1973. “Marxism and Retribution.” Philosophy & Public Affairs 2 (3) (April): 217–243.

O’Malley, Pat. 1981. “From Feudal Honour to Bourgeois Reputation. Ideology, Law and the Rise of Industrial Capitalism.” Sociology 15 (1) (February): 79–93.
———. 1982. “Historical Practice and the Production of Marxist Legal Theory.” Crime and Social Justice (18) (December): 53–61.

Roth, Brad R. 2004. “Retrieving Marx for the Human Rights Project.” Leiden Journal of International Law 17 (1): 31–66.

Russell, Stuart. 2002. "The Continuing Relevance of Marxism to Critical Criminology." Critical Criminology 11 (2): 112-135.

Schlesinger, Rudolf. 1951. Soviet Legal Theory: Its Social Background and Development. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Slochower, Harry. 1944. “The Marxist Idea of Change and Law.” Science & Society 8 (4) (October): 345–353. Soviet Legal Philosophy. 1951. Harvard University Press.

Spitzer, Steven. 1983. “Marxist Perspectives in the Sociology of Law.” Annual Review of Sociology 9 (1) (August): 103–124.

Stone, Alan. 1985. “The Place of Law in the Marxian Structure-Superstructure Archetype.” Law & Society Review 19 (1) (January): 39–67.

Suchting, W. 1977. “On a Criticism of Marx on Law and Relations of Production.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 38 (2) (December): 200–208.

Sumner, Colin. 1979. Reading Ideologies: Investigation into the Marxist Theory of Ideology and Law. Academic Press Inc.

Sypnowich, Christine. 1987. “The ‘withering Away’ of Law.” Studies in Soviet Thought 33 (4) (May): 305–332.

Thompson, E.P. 1995. The Poverty of Theory. London: Merlin Press.
———. 1990. Whigs & Hunters: The Origin of De Black Act. Penguin Books.

Tomlins, Christopher. 2007. “How Autonomous Is Law?” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3 (December): 45–68.

Tumanov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich. 1974. Contemporary Bourgeois Legal Thought: a Marxist Evaluation of the Basic Concepts. Progress Publishers.

Tushnet, Mark V. 1978. A Marxist Analysis of American Law.

Weitzer, Ronald. 1980. “Law and Legal Ideology: Contributions to the Genesis and Reproduction of Capitalism.” Berkeley Journal of Sociology 24/25 (January): 137–157.

Wolff, Robert Paul. 1971. The Rule of Law. Simon and Schuster.